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Steel with smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron was first produced in antiquity by using a bloomery. These methods were specialized, and so steel did not become a major commodity until the s.
New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century.
In the Industrial Revolution , new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel.
In the late s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel.
This made steel much more economical, thereby leading to wrought iron no longer being produced in large quantities. In , Antoine Lavoisier used the reaction of water steam with metallic iron inside an incandescent iron tube to produce hydrogen in his experiments leading to the demonstration of the conservation of mass , which was instrumental in changing chemistry from a qualitative science to a quantitative one.
Iron plays a certain role in mythology and has found various usage as a metaphor and in folklore. The Greek poet Hesiod 's Works and Days lines — lists different ages of man named after metals like gold, silver, bronze and iron to account for successive ages of humanity.
The Virtues, in despair, quit the earth; and the depravity of man becomes universal and complete. Hard steel succeeded then.
An example of the importance of iron's symbolic role may be found in the German Campaign of Berlin iron jewellery reached its peak production between and , when the Prussian royal family urged citizens to donate gold and silver jewellery for military funding.
The inscription Gold gab ich für Eisen I gave gold for iron was used as well in later war efforts. Nowadays, the industrial production of iron or steel consists of two main stages.
In the first stage, iron ore is reduced with coke in a blast furnace , and the molten metal is separated from gross impurities such as silicate minerals.
This stage yields an alloy -- pig iron —that contains relatively large amounts of carbon. In the second stage, the amount of carbon in the pig iron is lowered by oxidation to yield wrought iron, steel, or cast iron.
The blast furnace is loaded with iron ores, usually hematite Fe 2 O 3 or magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , together with coke coal that has been separately baked to remove volatile components.
Some iron in the high-temperature lower region of the furnace reacts directly with the coke: . A flux such as limestone calcium carbonate or dolomite calcium-magnesium carbonate is also added to the furnace's load.
Its purpose is to remove silicaceous minerals in the ore, which would otherwise clog the furnace. The heat of the furnace decomposes the carbonates to calcium oxide , which reacts with any excess silica to form a slag composed of calcium silicate CaSiO 3 or other products.
At the furnace's temperature, the metal and the slag are both molten. They collect at the bottom as two immiscible liquid layers with the slag on top , that are then easily separated.
The high level of carbon makes it relatively weak and brittle. Reducing the amount of carbon to 0.
A great variety of steel articles can then be made by cold working , hot rolling , forging , machining , etc. Removing the other impurities, instead, results in cast iron, which is used to cast articles in foundries ; for example stoves, pipes, radiators, lamp-posts, and rails.
Steel products often undergo various heat treatments after they are forged to shape. It makes the steel softer and more workable.
Owing to environmental concerns, alternative methods of processing iron have been developed. Natural gas is partially oxidized with heat and a catalyst : .
Iron ore is then treated with these gases in a furnace, producing solid sponge iron: . Silica is removed by adding a limestone flux as described above.
Ignition of a mixture of aluminium powder and iron oxide yields metallic iron via the thermite reaction :. Various processes have been used for this, including finery forges , puddling furnaces, Bessemer converters , open hearth furnaces , basic oxygen furnaces , and electric arc furnaces.
In all cases, the objective is to oxidize some or all of the carbon, together with other impurities. On the other hand, other metals may be added to make alloy steels.
Its low cost and high strength often make it the material of choice material to withstand stress or transmit forces, such as the construction of machinery and machine tools , rails , automobiles , ship hulls , concrete reinforcing bars , and the load-carrying framework of buildings.
Since pure iron is quite soft, it is most commonly combined with alloying elements to make steel.
The mechanical properties of iron and its alloys are extremely relevant to their structural applications. Those properties can be evaluated in various ways, including the Brinell test , the Rockwell test and the Vickers hardness test.
The properties of pure iron are often used to calibrate measurements or to compare tests. An increase in the carbon content will cause a significant increase in the hardness and tensile strength of iron.
Maximum hardness of 65 R c is achieved with a 0. This form of iron is used in the type of stainless steel used for making cutlery, and hospital and food-service equipment.
Commercially available iron is classified based on purity and the abundance of additives. Pig iron has 3.
Pig iron is not a saleable product, but rather an intermediate step in the production of cast iron and steel. The broken surface of a white cast iron is full of fine facets of the broken iron carbide, a very pale, silvery, shiny material, hence the appellation.
Cooling a mixture of iron with 0. Rapid cooling, on the other hand, does not allow time for this separation and creates hard and brittle martensite.
The steel can then be tempered by reheating to a temperature in between, changing the proportions of pearlite and martensite. The end product below 0.
In gray iron the carbon exists as separate, fine flakes of graphite , and also renders the material brittle due to the sharp edged flakes of graphite that produce stress concentration sites within the material.
Wrought iron contains less than 0. If honed to an edge, it loses it quickly. Wrought iron is characterized by the presence of fine fibers of slag entrapped within the metal.
Wrought iron is more corrosion resistant than steel. It has been almost completely replaced by mild steel for traditional "wrought iron" products and blacksmithing.
Mild steel corrodes more readily than wrought iron, but is cheaper and more widely available. Carbon steel contains 2.
Alloy steels contain varying amounts of carbon as well as other metals, such as chromium , vanadium , molybdenum , nickel, tungsten , etc.
Their alloy content raises their cost, and so they are usually only employed for specialist uses. One common alloy steel, though, is stainless steel.
Recent developments in ferrous metallurgy have produced a growing range of microalloyed steels, also termed ' HSLA ' or high-strength, low alloy steels, containing tiny additions to produce high strengths and often spectacular toughness at minimal cost.
Apart from traditional applications, iron is also used for protection from ionizing radiation. Although it is lighter than another traditional protection material, lead , it is much stronger mechanically.
The attenuation of radiation as a function of energy is shown in the graph. The mechanism of the rusting of iron is as follows: .
The electrolyte is usually iron II sulfate in urban areas formed when atmospheric sulfur dioxide attacks iron , and salt particles in the atmosphere in seaside areas.
Although the dominant use of iron is in metallurgy, iron compounds are also pervasive in industry. Iron catalysts are traditionally used in the Haber-Bosch process for the production of ammonia and the Fischer-Tropsch process for conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons for fuels and lubricants.
Iron III oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction , used in welding large iron parts like rails and purifying ores.
Iron III oxide and oxyhidroxide are used as reddish and ocher pigments. Iron III chloride finds use in water purification and sewage treatment , in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints, as an additive in animal feed, and as an etchant for copper in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
Iron II sulfate is used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to fortify foods and treat iron deficiency anemia.
Iron III sulfate is used in settling minute sewage particles in tank water. Iron II chloride is used as a reducing flocculating agent, in the formation of iron complexes and magnetic iron oxides, and as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.
Iron is required for life. Iron-containing proteins participate in transport, storage and used of oxygen. Examples of iron-containing proteins in higher organisms include hemoglobin, cytochrome see high-valent iron , and catalase.
Iron acquisition poses a problem for aerobic organisms because ferric iron is poorly soluble near neutral pH. Thus, these organisms have developed means to absorb iron as complexes, sometimes taking up ferrous iron before oxidising it back to ferric iron.
After uptake in human cells , iron storage is precisely regulated. The most commonly known and studied bioinorganic iron compounds biological iron molecules are the heme proteins : examples are hemoglobin , myoglobin , and cytochrome P Some examples of iron metalloproteins are ferritin and rubredoxin.
Hemoglobin is an oxygen carrier that occurs in red blood cells and contributes their color, transporting oxygen in the arteries from the lungs to the muscles where it is transferred to myoglobin , which stores it until it is needed for the metabolic oxidation of glucose , generating energy.
In this configuration, the sixth coordination site reserved for the oxygen is blocked by another histidine residue. When deoxyhemoglobin picks up an oxygen molecule, this histidine residue moves away and returns once the oxygen is securely attached to form a hydrogen bond with it.
This results in a movement of all the protein chains that leads to the other subunits of hemoglobin changing shape to a form with larger oxygen affinity.
Thus, when deoxyhemoglobin takes up oxygen, its affinity for more oxygen increases, and vice versa. Thus, while hemoglobin is almost saturated with oxygen in the high partial pressures of oxygen found in the lungs, its affinity for oxygen is much lower than that of myoglobin, which oxygenates even at low partial pressures of oxygen found in muscle tissue.
Carbon monoxide and phosphorus trifluoride are poisonous to humans because they bind to hemoglobin similarly to oxygen, but with much more strength, so that oxygen can no longer be transported throughout the body.
Hemoglobin bound to carbon monoxide is known as carboxyhemoglobin. This effect also plays a minor role in the toxicity of cyanide , but there the major effect is by far its interference with the proper functioning of the electron transport protein cytochrome a.
The sixth coordination site is then occupied by either another imidazole nitrogen or a methionine sulfur, so that these proteins are largely inert to oxygen — with the exception of cytochrome a, which bonds directly to oxygen and thus is very easily poisoned by cyanide.
Since the reduction potential of each step is slightly greater than the previous one, the energy is released step-by-step and can thus be stored in adenosine triphosphate.
Cytochrome a is slightly distinct, as it occurs at the mitochondrial membrane, binds directly to oxygen, and transports protons as well as electrons, as follows: .
These have one, two, four, or eight iron atoms that are each approximately tetrahedrally coordinated to four sulfur atoms; because of this tetrahedral coordination, they always have high-spin iron.
The simplest of such compounds is rubredoxin , which has only one iron atom coordinated to four sulfur atoms from cysteine residues in the surrounding peptide chains.
Another important class of iron-sulfur proteins is the ferredoxins , which have multiple iron atoms. Transferrin does not belong to either of these classes.
The ability of sea mussels to maintain their grip on rocks in the ocean is facilitated by their use of organometallic iron-based bonds in their protein-rich cuticles.
Based on synthetic replicas, the presence of iron in these structures increased elastic modulus times, tensile strength 58 times, and toughness 92 times.
The amount of stress required to permanently damage them increased 76 times. Iron is pervasive, but particularly rich sources of dietary iron include red meat , oysters , lentils , beans , poultry , fish , leaf vegetables , watercress , tofu , chickpeas , black-eyed peas , and blackstrap molasses.
Iron provided by dietary supplements is often found as iron II fumarate , although iron II sulfate is cheaper and is absorbed equally well.
Iron is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids  and is also available for use as a common iron supplement.
Glycine , the least expensive amino acid, is most often used to produce iron glycinate supplements. The U. For men the EAR is 6. The RDA is For men, 8.
RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. As for safety, the IOM also sets Tolerable upper intake levels ULs for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient.
The PRIs are higher than the U. RDAs, with the exception of pregnancy. Infants may require iron supplements if they are bottle-fed cow's milk.
For U. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Most cases of iron-deficiency anemia are mild, but if not treated can cause problems like fast or irregular heartbeat, complications during pregnancy, and delayed growth in infants and children.
Iron uptake is tightly regulated by the human body, which has no regulated physiological means of excreting iron. Only small amounts of iron are lost daily due to mucosal and skin epithelial cell sloughing, so control of iron levels is primarily accomplished by regulating uptake.
For this reason, people should not take iron supplements unless they suffer from iron deficiency and have consulted a doctor.
Hemochromatosis is estimated to be the cause of 0. Overdoses of ingested iron can cause excessive levels of free iron in the blood.
High blood levels of free ferrous iron react with peroxides to produce highly reactive free radicals that can damage DNA , proteins , lipids , and other cellular components.
Iron toxicity occurs when the cell contains free iron, which generally occurs when iron levels exceed the availability of transferrin to bind the iron.
Damage to the cells of the gastrointestinal tract can also prevent them from regulating iron absorption, leading to further increases in blood levels.
Iron typically damages cells in the heart , liver and elsewhere, causing adverse effects that include coma , metabolic acidosis , shock , liver failure , coagulopathy , adult respiratory distress syndrome , long-term organ damage, and even death.
The medical management of iron toxicity is complicated, and can include use of a specific chelating agent called deferoxamine to bind and expel excess iron from the body.
The role of iron in cancer defense can be described as a "double-edged sword" because of its pervasive presence in non-pathological processes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the metallic element. For other uses, see Iron disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Allotropes of iron.
Main article: isotopes of iron. See also: Category:Iron compounds. Structural formula of ferrocene, and a powdered sample.
Main article: History of ferrous metallurgy. Main article: Wrought iron. Further information: Ancient iron production. Main article: Cast iron. Main article: Steel.
See also: Steelmaking. See also: Iron ore. Main article: Blast furnace. Main articles: Steelmaking and Ironworks. Main article: Thermite.
See also: Steel. Main article: Human iron metabolism. Main article: Iron deficiency. Main article: Iron overload.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Mercury element. Transition metal. Spectral lines of iron.
Category: Iron view talk edit references. Disodium tetracarbonylferrate Collman's reagent. Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer "Fp 2 ".
Ferrous sulfate , ferrocene. Ferric chloride , ferrocenium tetrafluoroborate. Look up iron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Over the years they have set a bench mark in professional Ladders, while catering to the most demanding and varying needs of industries and service provider.
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